Falling Bodies, Falling Tears, Rising Hopes: An Olympic Wrap-Up

Sarah Seltzer

During the Olympics, we see women's bodies not for their looks, but for what they can do. Can they stick a landing, enter the water smoothly, sprint through the tape?

Track
phenom Lolo Jones clipped her final hurdle, and stumbled, losing her chance for a medal.

The
camera lingered on her prostrate form for endless seconds, before replaying
her tumble over, and over again: in slow motion, from the back, and
from above.

American
gymnast Alicia Sacramone fell on the floor exercises, in the final
tense moments before the team final was decided. The camera showed Alicia
as she fought back tears and then–you guessed it–replayed her fall
again and again and again.

Fifteen
year old diver Haley Ishimatsu stood at the microphone, having been
cornered after she missed her chance at the finals, and broke down.

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As
much as we like to watch our female athletes succeed, it wouldn’t
be the Olympics if we weren’t zooming in a couple of women falling
or crying. And yet, harping on the water-works worth moments can’t
obscure the phenomenal athletic heights that women are reaching in an
(almost) equal arena.  

Bodies, positive 

Perhaps
those obsessive replays of women’s falls are a way of counterbalancing
the strong, aggressive female bodies on our screens.

After
all, during the Olympics, we see women’s bodies not for their looks,
but for what they can do. Can they stick a landing, enter the water
smoothly, sprint through the tape?

It’s
amazing to watch so many women in tight clothing and never hear their
appearance mentioned. From tiny, muscular Shawn Johnson tumbling on
the beam at 16 years old to tall, streamlined Dara Torres jack-knifing
through the water at 41, our athletes highlighted the diversity of women’s
bodies achieving mind-blowing feats.

An
athlete from Bahrain, Ruqaya Al Ghasara, who ran in a modest
uniform
garnered
surprisingly little commentary. On the cable news shows, her choice
of religiously sanctioned dress would have been debated endlessly; here,
the attention was on the race itself.

Every
two years, the Olympics also provides a rare chance to get a deeper
look into the world of women in traditional sports. Our US women’s
softball, soccer, water polo, indoor volleyball and basketball teams
all
have or will face off in the gold medal matches for their sports.
Our female track stars have been racking up the medals.

The
amazing duo of Misty May-Treanor and Kerri Walsh won the beach volleyball finals without
dropping a single set.

That’s
pretty impressive dominance for American female athletes. And yet commentators
can never just focus on their athletic stories, always going for the
personal. 

Drama, Falls and Crying
Moms
 

Aside
from the triple-replays of the female athletes’ heartbreak, every
major Olympic victory has a crying or screaming woman to punctuate it.
Each Michael Phelps gold medal was accompanied by a second by second
replay of his mom’s demonstrative reaction. We got replays of Johnson’s
weeping mom, sprinter Usain Bolt’s jubilant mom, a shot of May-Treanor
tearing up as she spread a vial of her mother’s ashes on the volleyball court.

We
also get regaled with stories about the personal lives of the female
athletes in breathless succession. I know how Walsh and May-Treanor
met their respective husbands, and when they plan to have children.
I know about Lolo Jones’ childhood in foster homes, and about track
star Sanya Richard’s engagement ring given to her by a New York Giant.
I know about Dara Torres having a baby, and about the Russian gymnast
who moved her son to Germany to receive cancer treatment. I know about
the love rivalry/nude photo scandal involving female French and Italian
swimmers.

With
the exception of super-celeb Phelps, the storyline for men tends to
stick to the sport itself:  Usain Bolt has emerged as the most
decorated sprinter, Jason Lezak saved his team’s relay in the final
leg.

 The
need for drama when women compete explains why we relentlessly hype
gymnastics-and figure skating in the winter-as spotlight women’s
sports when American women are also excelling elsewhere. I think there’s
something about the metaphor of these "grace" sports that resonates
with women’s place in the world. These athletes are supposed to be
elegant, incredibly strong, precise, all while in constant danger of
falling from a precarious perch. Sounds like women’s jobs every day.
(It also must be noted that the gymnasts and skaters are often young,
small, and white or East Asian–so conforming, to an extent, to beauty
ideals.)

Beyond the Olympics: what’s
the reality?
 

The
biggest problem may be not what happens at the Olympics, but what happens
when they are over.  The Olympics create an illusion of gender
equality that does not represent reality, even in the US and in other
powerhouse countries like Russia and China, where women lack access
to health care and equality.

Furthermore,
delegations like the Saudia
Arabian one
, which
refused to send female athletes, are soft-handed by the IOC even though
discriminating against female athletes goes against its rules. 

While
much remains that’s disappointing, every Olympics seems to bring with
it images of female strength that also stay burned in our collective
memory. And hopefully those images have the slow power to change minds.  

Commentary Media

Raymond Moore May Have Resigned, But His Comments About Women’s Tennis Betray a Broader Problem

Shireen Ahmed

What this situation makes clear is the glaring reality that women's tennis players often don't have institutionalized support or solidarity from their male colleagues.

Just before the final match of the BNP Paribas Open Tournament in Indian Wells, California, on March 20, tournament director Raymond Moore stunned the tennis world with misguided, sexist comments regarding women’s tennis. The aftermath is somewhat reminiscent of a shoddy political campaigncomplete with inappropriate gaffes, a deluge of critiques, apologies, and then a resignation.

Sexism in sports is quite prevalent, so women are accustomed to seeing reports of asinine commentary. The frequency of such attitudes does not mean that such remarks are not harmful to women’s sports or that they ought to be taken lightly. What this situation makes clear, however, is the glaring reality that women’s tennis players often don’t have institutionalized support or solidarity from their male colleagues. This is discouraging, as tennis is widely regarded by members of the media as the sport that other federations should look to as an example of pay equity and camaraderie. Women consistently fight battles on their own with little backup from male players, men’s tennis associations, and other athletes. This is part of the problem in a system that allows sexism to flourish in women’s sports.

Moore chose to make mind-bogglingly misplaced comments to the usual media scrum that precedes the final match. His comments were unprovoked and unrelated to any specific issue. Instead, he simply offered his observations on female players: “I think the WTA [Women’s Tennis Association] … you know, in my next life when I come back I want to be someone in the WTA, because they ride on the coattails of the men,” Moore said. “They don’t make any decisions and they are lucky. They are very, very lucky. If I was a lady player, I’d go down every night on my knees and thank God that Roger Federer and Rafa Nadal were born, because they have carried this sport. They really have.”

To add insult to injury, Moore proceeded to comment on—wait for itthe level of physical beauty of specific players. Moore named Eugenie Bouchard of Canada and Garbine Muguruza of Spain as being among the “attractive prospects” on the tour. When asked to clarify about what he meant by attractive. Moore replied, “They are physically attractive and competitively attractive,” he said. “They can assume the mantle of leadership once Serena [Williams] decides to stop. They really have quite a few very, very attractive players.”

As a fan of tennis, I was aghast. And as a feminist sports writer, I was horrified.

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In addition to being inappropriate and insulting, Moore’s comments were factually incorrect. When I think of this sport, I think of a legendary history of advocacy coupled with enthralling athleticism displayed by female tennis superstars. In 1956, Althea Gibson became the first Black woman to win a major international tournament after years of being shut out by the all-white U.S. Lawn Tennis Association. She battled racist systems and even against hotels who would refuse to book a space in their establishments for a luncheon to honor her and her accomplishments. Gibson certainly helped to elevate the standards of the game.

Perhaps Moore also forgot about Billie Jean King. King engulfed herself in advocating for women’s rights after realizing that a woman’s place in tennis was economically restricted. When King won Wimbledon in 1968, she received £750, but her male counterpart Rod Laver won £2000. In 1973, she famously accepted a challenge from self-proclaimed “male chauvinist” Bobby Riggs and won in three straight sets. Not only did an estimated 50 million people across 37 countries watch the epic “Battle of the Sexes,” but King drew much-needed attention to financial inequality and created the WTA. Former professional tennis player Chris Evert has said of King’s contributions: “Everybody should thank her and shake her hand. She put money in our pockets and provided a living for hundreds and hundreds of female athletes.”

And then there is Serena Williams, who was competing at the tournament in question and who has been hailed by tennis pundits as the best player the United States has ever produced of all time. The 21-time Grand Slam winner is not only a champion of women’s sports; she is a one of the female athletes who routinely speaks up about issues that affect them. Williams has been the target of ruthless and racist sports media. She has been maligned, yet still uses her platform to connect with important organizations such as Equal Justice Initiative and has boycotted major tournaments because of her convictions. And Williams enthralls and inspires million of people with her grace, strength, and top form.

Thanks in part to the work of Gibson, King, Williams, and others, gender inequity is not as stark in tennis as it is in other sports. Tennis associations are reputed to be the most even-salaried for women and their male counterparts. However, if Moore’s comment and others are any indication, it seems as if ingrained sexist ideologies simmer under the lid.

The reactions to Moore’s comments, from King, Evert, and Martina Navratilova, to name a few players, were swift and appropriately angry:

Williams, meanwhile, was very eloquent in her reaction to Moore’s comments: “You know, there’s only one way to interpret that. Get on your knees, which is offensive enough, and thank a man, which is not—we, as women, have come a long way. We shouldn’t have to drop to our knees at any point.”

Williams reiterated the point that the 2015 U.S. Open women’s finals sold out before the men’s. It is not the case that men shoulder more responsibility or interest in tennis more so than women. And, as Jane McManus of espnW noted, Moore’s comments call into question his ability to be an effective tournament director for a co-ed event that relies on the celebrity of the women’s game. “You can’t have a tournament director for a men’s and women’s tournament who doesn’t believe the women carry their weight,” McManus wrote.

In the midst of this criticism, Moore issued an eager apology.

While Moore was trying to navigate through the mess he created, sports media outlets asked other prominent players what they thought of his comments. Very unfortunately, the world’s number-one ranked male player, Novak Djokovic, used the opportunity to lecture awkwardly about how pay inequality would be justified because men garner more income than women on the tennis circuit.

“I think that our men’s tennis world … should fight for more, because the stats are showing that we have much more spectators on the men’s tennis matches,” Djokovic said. “I think that’s one of the, you know, reasons why maybe we should get awarded more.”

Djokovic also added in some inexplicable comments about women’s bodies and their hormones—yes, hormones—going through “different things.” He ended his obtuse statement with the very subtle: “Ladies know what I am talking about.”

The stream of off-the-cuff sexist remarks and subsequent apologies is very popular, apparently. After being counseled by fellow tennis player Andy Murray, Djokovic insisted in a Facebook post that he never meant any offense or “negative connotations.”

But his knee-jerk reaction was also to insist that his comments were taken out of context. Instead of stating that he was wrong and will not repeat the same mistake, he placed the burden on others who might have been offended for taking his comments “the wrong way.”

I don’t believe his comments were interpreted incorrectly; I believe he, like many male sports stars, was simply unwilling to own up to his comments.

Sports writer and tennis enthusiast Lindsay Gibbs reported for ThinkProgress that when the Association of Tennis Professionals was asked to comment on Moore or Djokovic’s remarks, its statement was a baffling argument against equal prize money.

“That’s right—given a very obvious opportunity to take a strong stand against sexism and promote equality, men’s tennis instead decided to make the argument against equal prize money,” Gibbs wrote. “This cycle is as exhausting as it is self-defeating.”

There are those who avoid these messes by educating themselves and properly articulating their support of women’s tennis. Former pro tennis player Patrick McEnroe said he was “livid” at Moore’s comments and publicly called for him to resign.

WTA Tour Chief Executive Steve Simon also declared his unwavering endorsement of equal pay for female players before the start of the Miami Open. And Murray was quick to denounce Djokovic’s position and insisted that his words “do not stack up.” He mentioned that quite often, tennis fans come to watch Williams specifically.

Overall, though, the advocacy offered to women is unstable and inconsistent. While discussing how women mobilized to earn a proper salary, King told espnW during an interview at Wimbledon last year, “The men will never give us credit.”

The dim silver lining of all this seems to be that wider discussions of gender inequality in pay and institutionalized sexism have been prevalent in mainstream, male-dominated sports media, which would otherwise seldom address such topics. But so long as there are men in positions of power asked to comment on issues in women’s sports—as is the case with tennis—they also need to participate in vocalizing their support for female athletes. Solidarity with women, which includes not maligning the efforts of female athletes, is important to ensuring consistent growth of the sport. For men at all levels to reiterate that women’s sports are powerful and exciting goes a long way in dismantling sexist ideology suggesting women’s sports do not hold broad appeal, that they are somehow less “interesting” than men’s sports, or that, like Moore suggested, they are piggybacking off male athletes’ success.

While men remain in the roles of executive directors, administrators, and decision makers, it is crucial for them to back up female playersparticularly because that recognition is well deserved.

So many women’s tennis players have brought issues of social justice to the forefront. They are addressing pressing issues of sexism but also of race, class, and gender identity. These feats go far beyond only winning trophies. These women are fostering change in society through sports.

How unjust and ignorant of Moore to erase these accomplishments.

On March 21, Moore resigned as tournament director of Indian Wells. I sincerely hope that the next tournament director is far more enlightened of the enormous contributions to tennis and sports that female players have had.

Moore’s initial comments ballooned into an issue involving other men and highlighted the recurring sexism that plagues sports. Their mea culpas ring hollow at a time when women’s tennis features brilliant female players. The point is certainly not to avoid making sexist comments in front of the cameras. It is to understand that sexist comments are doing a disservice to the sport and are incorrect and unjust, and must be addressed and corrected by everyone, not just the women they affect directly.

It was not only Title IX nor the “coattails of men” that created the genius and success of women’s tennis; it was the women themselves.

News Media

Three in Ten Stories on Sexual Assault Written by Women, Study Finds

Zoe Greenberg

The researchers suggested that the gender of the writer affected how the stories were reported and written.

National media heavily featured male reporters and sources in its coverage of campus sexual assault in 2015, although the majority of sexual assault victims are women, according to a new report released by the Women’s Media Center on Wednesday.

The Women’s Media Center commissioned the analytics research firm Novetta to evaluate 940 articles related to sexual assault from the top 12 highest-circulation newspapers and wire services in the United States, including the Associated Pressthe New York Times, the Washington Post, and Reuters. The study refers to male and female writers, and does not break down coverage by transgender, intersex, or gender-nonconforming writers.

In their analysis of stories published between September 1, 2014, and August 31, 2015, researchers found stark gender disparities in both writing and sourcing related to sexual assault. Men wrote 55 percent of the sexual assault stories, compared to 31 percent written by women. Fourteen percent had no byline. Forty-eight percent of the quotes in the stories were from men, while 32 percent were from women.

The researchers suggested that the gender of the writer affected how the stories were reported and written. Women journalists wrote about the alleged victim more often than male journalists, and addressed the impact that sexual assault had on that person, according to the study.

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The San Jose Mercury News proved to be the exception, with 71 percent of its 35 stories on sexual assault written by women. Along with the Washington Post and the Denver Post, the Mercury News used more quotes from female sources than male sources in their coverage.

“We commissioned this research because of a critical need for greater nuance and sensitivity in reporting about women’s stories of rape in print media,” Julie Burton, president of the Women’s Media Center, said in a statement.

Previous research has shown that the majority of rape and sexual assault victims in the United States are women.

Nearly 20 percent of U.S. women reported being raped during their lifetimes in 2011, compared to 1.7 percent of men, according to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study. And on college campuses, 25 percent of women said they experienced “unwanted sexual incidents” while there, compared to 7 percent of men.

The gender gap was even wider in sports stories that referenced sexual assault. Men wrote 64 percent of those stories, and 75 percent of the quotes were from male sources.

“Anyone relying on sports coverage to keep up with stories involving athletes and sexualized violence are receiving a seriously skewed kind of coverage, one that clearly prioritizes the voices of men,” the Women’s Media Center wrote in the report.

It went on to recommend that newsrooms across the country tackle the disparity by hiring more women and by striving to achieve gender parity when assigning stories and finding sources.

Women write 37 percent of total media stories, according to another report by the Women’s Media Center, though they write a majority or near majority of stories related to education, health, and lifestyle.

“Our research shows that print media have a great deal of work ahead, in all regards,” Burton said.

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