Analysis Violence

Beyond the Hashtags: Nigerians Seek Lasting Solution to Boko Haram Insurgency

Samuel Okocha

Spaces for Change, a human rights advocacy group in Nigeria, recently organized a citizens' forum titled #BeyondTheHashtags "to generate a data bank of [citizens'] concerns" about the abduction of hundreds of the nation's girls as well as the "rising insurgency in the northern part of the country."

Advocacy groups are seeking short and long-term measures to end the insurgency that has left thousands of people dead in northern Nigeria.

More than 200 school girls have been held in captivity by Boko Haram soldiers since April 14. Their abduction has inspired an online campaign with hashtags, such as #BringBackOurGirls, gaining global attention.

The online campaign, along with street protests across the globe, forced Nigeria’s government to accept help from foreign countries to find and free the girls ranging in age from 12 to 15. But efforts to bring them back have not been successful.

Spaces for Change, a human rights advocacy group in Nigeria, recently organized a citizens’ forum titled #BeyondTheHashtags “to generate a data bank of [citizens’] concerns around the Chibok abductions and the rising insurgency in the northern part of the country,” the organization explained on its website

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“Beyond the Hashtag is a conversation that is looking at improving security consciousness among citizens beyond the street protests and online campaigns,” Victoria Ibezim-Ohaeri of Spaces for Change told Rewire. “We ask ourselves: beyond the hashtags, what do we need to do to ensure these abductions do not occur again?”

At the forum in Lagos, advocacy groups, legal practitioners, and ordinary citizens gathered to track the gaps and progress in the Nigerian government’s fight against terrorism.

Spaces for Change has been collating citizens’ concerns and questions regarding the effectiveness of the government’s counter-insurgency operations.

Concerns Over Accountability in Spending on Defense

“Some of the questions that have come out relate to adequacy of military infrastructure,” Ibezim-Ohaeri said. “There is also the welfare of military personnel. There have been a lot of questions on whether these soldiers fighting the insurgents are adequately taken care of and well-motivated to engage and quell the insurgency.”

Last week, a military commander escaped death after a group of angry soldiers turned their guns at his vehicle and pulled the trigger. Some accounts claim the soldiers were expressing their unhappiness over their poor welfare.

In 2009, 27 soldiers that served in the United Nations Mission in Liberia were sentenced to life in jail by a military court martial.

The former UN peacekeepers were court martialed for demonstrating on the streets of Akure in southwestern Nigeria over unpaid allowances. The life sentence was later reduced to seven years.

Nigeria’s security budget has increased considerably in the last two years. But Ibezim-Ohaeri says citizens are asking whether the allocations have matched actual spending in the sector.

Building Citizens’ Capacity

Amy Oyekunle recently returned from Borno state, the hotbed of the Boko Haram insurgency.

“I am happy about the international publicity with the bring back our girls hashtag,” she said. “But beyond the hashtag, I think that Borno needs a very strong sense of strategy in terms of how they would recoup and deal with the insurgency.”

“We saw a lot of women who had lost their husbands. A lot of children have been killed. And then there’s the tendency that parents might not even send their children back to school because of the Boko Haram attacks on schools.”

“So there’s a strong need to build the capacity of the citizens themselves to deal with what they are experiencing,” she added.

Advocacy groups agreed on the need to empower citizens to be able to alert security institutions when they see any sign of security threat within their communities.

“In the U.S., a child knows what to do when he or she finds himself in a dangerous situation,” Ibezim-Ohaeri said. “But many here, including the enlightened Nigerians, do not know. We therefore need an effective awareness campaign to make people know how and when to dial the emergency line.”

Laila St. Matthew Daniels, a psychotherapist and social activist, called for trauma centers to deal with the psychological and emotional shock of affected parents and families.

“Another one is to put across that the benefits of education far outweighs the minuses of not having an education,” she pointed out. “And how we can bring education a little bit to the outskirts and let these kids come back to school because they are scared right now.”

The War on Poverty Meets the War on Terrorism

Oil-rich Nigeria officially became Africa’s largest economy in April. But Africa’s most populated nation remains one of the poorest countries in the world. And many of the those poor people are found in northern Nigeria.

“While we were in Borno we found that the poverty rate in the state was unacceptably high,” Ibezim-Ohaeri told Rewire. “It’s compounded by lack of access to education for most children between the ages of 6 and 16. So in a community where poverty is rife and citizens don’t have access to education, it creates a very conducive environment for terrorism to thrive.”

For the government to win the war against terror, Ibezim-Ohaeri suggests a combined military strategy with an economic strategy that lifts people out of poverty and encourages young school girls and boys to have access to education and realize their potential.

Without those two combined strategies, Ibezim-Ohaeri says it is very doubtful that the war against terrorism will be very successful.

The Rule of Law vs. Insurgency

At the #BeyondTheHashtags forum, human rights activist and legal practitioner Bamidele Aturu said, “Part of the problem we are having with Boko Haram was caused by the Nigerian police.”

Boko Haram founder Mohammed Yusuf, who was arrested by the army and handed over to the police, died in police custody in 2009. That incident triggered a wave of Boko Haram attacks on police stations and government institutions. The sect has simply refused to stop carrying out its attacks after the death of Yusuf.

The group has been blamed for the Tuesday twin bomb explosions at a busy market in the north central city of Jos. More than 100 people died in that attack. A few days earlier, a suicide blast in a street full of bars and restaurants in the northern commercial city of Kano killed four people. The explosion was reportedly caused by a car bomb in the mainly Christian area of Sabon Gari.

“Up until now, the Nigerian state has not apologized for that extra judicial killing of Yusuf,” Aturu said.

Ayo Obe, a rights advocate and lawyer, agreed. She lamented the seeming inability of the Nigerian police to get convictions in court, especially when it involves sensitive cases. “Instead we have had extra judicial killings,” she said. “This is a problem. The police need to be equipped to present enough forensic evidence to ensure convictions in court.”

She talked of the need for Nigeria to uphold the rule of law and prevent a state of lawlessness.

Building Trust in Government

The #BeyondTheHashtags forum also raised the issue of inconsistency in communications among government agencies.

“You hear the ministry of information gives [a piece of] information that contrasts with what the defense headquarters gives, and another contrasts with the information that comes out of the presidency,” Ibezim-Ohaeri said. “So citizens do not know which agency to look up to to get security information.”

Spaces for Change will do a thorough analysis of the data gathered at the #BeyondTheHashtags forum and share that information with various agencies that must play specific roles in the fight against insurgencies in the nation.

Roundups Law and Policy

Gavel Drop: The Fight Over Voter ID Laws Heats Up in the Courts

Jessica Mason Pieklo & Imani Gandy

Texas and North Carolina both have cases that could bring the constitutionality of Voter ID laws back before the U.S. Supreme Court as soon as this term.

Welcome to Gavel Drop, our roundup of legal news, headlines, and head-shaking moments in the courts

Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton intends to ask the U.S. Supreme Court to reinstate the state’s voter ID law.

Meanwhile, according to Politifact, North Carolina attorney general and gubernatorial challenger Roy Cooper is actually saving taxpayers money by refusing to appeal the Fourth Circuit’s ruling on the state’s voter ID law, so Gov. Pat McCrory (R) should stop complaining about it.

And in other North Carolina news, Ian Millhiser writes that the state has hired high-powered conservative attorney Paul Clement to defend its indefensible voter ID law.

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Alex Thompson writes in Vice that the Zika virus is about to hit states with the most restrictive abortion laws in the United States, including Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. So if you’re pregnant, stay away. No one has yet offered advice for those pregnant people who can’t leave Zika-prone areas.

Robin Marty writes on Care2 about Americans United for Life’s (AUL) latest Mad Lib-style model bill, the “National Abortion Data Reporting Law.” Attacking abortion rights: It’s what AUL does.

The Washington Post profiled Cecile Richards, president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Given this Congress, that will likely spur another round of hearings. (It did get a response from Richards herself.)

Kimberly Strawbridge Robinson writes in Bloomberg BNA that Stanford Law Professor Pamela Karlan thinks the Supreme Court’s clarification of the undue burden standard in Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt will have ramifications for voting rights cases.

This must-read New York Times piece reminds us that we still have a long way to go in accommodating breastfeeding parents on the job.

Commentary Politics

Milwaukee Officials: Black Youth, Single Mothers Are Not Responsible for Systemic Failings—You Are

Charmaine Lang

Milwaukee has multiple problems: poverty, a school system that throws out Black children at high rates, and lack of investment in all citizens' quality of life. But there's another challenge: politicians and law enforcement who act as if Black youth, single mothers, and families are the "real" reasons for the recent uprising and say so publicly.

This piece is published in collaboration with Echoing Ida, a Forward Together project.

On the day 23-year-old Sylville Smith was killed by a Milwaukee police officer, the city’s mayor, Tom Barrett, pleaded publicly with parents to tell their children to come home and leave protests erupting in the city.

In a August 13 press conference, Barrett said: “If you love your son, if you love your daughter, text them, call them, pull them by the ears, and get them home. Get them home right now before more damage is done. Because we don’t want to see more loss of life, we don’t want to see any more injuries.”

Barrett’s statement suggests that parents are not on the side of their sons and daughters. That parents, too, are not tired of the inequality they experience and witness in Milwaukee, and that youth are not capable of having their own political ideologies or moving their values into action.

It also suggests how much work Milwaukee’s elected officials and law enforcement need to do before they open their mouths.

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Barrett’s comments came after Smith fled a traffic stop and was shot by authorities on Milwaukee’s northwest side. The young Black man’s death sparked an urban uprising in the Sherman Park neighborhood, an area known for its racial and religious diversity. Businesses were burnt down, and the National Guard was activated in a city plagued by racism and poverty.

But Milwaukee parents and families need more than a directive thinly disguised as a plea. And Mayor Barrett, who was re-elected to a fourth term in April, should know well that Milwaukee, the nation’s most racially stratified city, needs racial equity in order for there to be peace and prosperity.

I live in Milwaukee, so I know that its residents, especially its Black parents, do love their children. We want more for them than city-enforced curfews and a simplistic solution of returning to their homes as a way to restore calm. We will have calm when we have greater investment in the public school system and youth services; easy access to healthy food; and green spaces, parks, and neighborhoods that are free from police harassment.

In fact, according to staggering statistics about Milwaukee and Wisconsin as a whole, Black people have been consistently denied their basic human rights and health. Wisconsin has the highest rate of incarceration of Black men nationwide; the Annie E. Casey Foundation has found it is the worst state for racial disparities affecting Black childrenand infant mortality rates are highest among Black women in the state.

What we absolutely don’t need are public officials whitewashing the facts: that Milwaukee’s young people have much to protest, including Wisconsin’s suspending Black high-school students more than any other state in the country.

Nor do we need incendiary comments like those coming from Milwaukee County Sheriff David Clarke, who drew national attention for his “blue lives matter” speech at the Republican National Convention and who is a regular guest on CNN and Fox News. In an August 15 op-ed published by the Hill, Clarke has called the civil unrest “the rule of the jungle,” “tribalism,” and a byproduct of “bullies on the left.”

He went even further, citing “father-absent homes” as a source of what he calls “urban pathologies”—leaning on old tropes used to stigmatize Black women, families, and the poor.

Single mothers are not to be blamed for young people’s responses to a city that ignores or criminalizes them. They should not be shamed for having children, their family structure, or for public policy that has made the city unsafe for parenting.

Creating justice—including reproductive justice—in Milwaukee will take much more than parents texting their teens to come home. The National Guard must leave immediately. Our leaders must identify anti-Black racism as a root cause of the uprisings. And, lastly, creating justice must start with an end to harmful rhetoric from officials who lead the way in ignoring and dehumanizing Milwaukee residents.

Sheriff Clarke has continued his outrageous comments. In another interview, he added he wouldn’t “be satisfied until these creeps crawl back into their holes so that the good law-abiding people that live in the Milwaukee ghetto can return to at least a calm quality of life.”

Many of Milwaukee’s Black families have never experienced calm. They have not experienced a city that centers their needs and voices. Black youth fed up with their treatment are not creeps.

And what hole do you think they should crawl back into? The hole where they face unemployment, underemployment, police brutality, and racism—and face it without complaint? If that’s the case, you may never be satisfied again, Sheriff.

Our leaders shouldn’t be content with Milwaukee’s status quo. And asking the citizens you serve to be quiet in the ghetto is an insidious expectation.

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