Roundups Sexual Health

This Week in Sex: Zurich’s ‘Sex Boxes,’ Second Porn Star Tests HIV-Positive, and a New Reason to Use Condoms

Martha Kempner

This week, Zurich builds drive-in sex boxes for sex workers and their clients; a second porn star tests positive for HIV, bringing more calls for condoms on set; and researchers find condoms can increase healthy bacteria in the vagina.

This Week in Sex is a weekly summary of news and research related to sexual behavior, sexuality education, contraception, STIs, and more.

Zurich Creates “Sex Boxes” for City’s Prostitutes

Prostitution has been legal in the Swiss city of Zurich since 1942, but in recent years residents have said the sex trade has become a public nuisance. They have complained that it causes traffic on busy downtown streets, leads to public sex, and because of a lack of facilities sex workers and their clients urinate and defecate in the streets. Violence against sex workers is also an issue in the city.

To solve these problems, voters agreed to invest 2.4 million Swiss francs, or about $2.6 million, to build drive-in “sex boxes” in an industrial complex just outside the city. Sex workers will rent the boxes for about $43 a year and pay an additional $5 per night in taxes. Between 7 p.m. and 5 a.m., clients can drive into the complex, negotiate with a sex worker, and then pull their car into a box where they can have sex in the car. The complex has bathrooms, showers, and security. It also has a social worker on-site trained to deal with sex workers.

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The city will spend over $700,000 per year to keep the complex running, but many residents think the investment will be worth it if it solves the issues involved with legalized prostitution. A spokesperson for the city’s department of social welfare said, “We can’t solve the whole problem of exploitation and human trafficking but at least we want to reduce the harm, especially the violence.”

Another Porn Star Tests Positive for HIV

Last week, RH Realty Check reported that porn actress Cameron Bay tested positive for HIV, shutting down the adult film industry while her colleagues and co-stars were tested. Though that self-imposed moratorium was lifted, a new one is in effect now that a gay porn star, whose screen name is Rod Daily, also tested positive for HIV.

Daily announced his test results via Twitter, saying, “Drumroll please!! I’m 32 years old and I’m HIV positive. Acute HIV, which means I recently was infected.” According to Daily, he was tested last week and no antibodies showed up, but they did on this week’s test. He says his doctors have told him this means he was infected within the last month. While this may be good news for Daily’s health (as he put it in another tweet, “I’m blessed for the fact that I caught it so early that I can blast that shit with meds”), it shows the problem with relying on even frequent testing as a prevention method. Not only can tests miss recently acquired HIV, the newly infected are among the most contagious.

Public health advocates and lawmakers who have been pushing for condom mandates on film sets said that two cases in two weeks proves that self-regulation of the adult entertainment industry is not sufficient. California Assemblyman Isadore Hall, who wants a statewide bill mandating condoms in adult films, said, “This is the second individual within a week and a half to contract HIV in the industry. There will probably be more.”

Added Michael Weinstein, president of the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, “After lifting its self-imposed moratorium on shooting last week, the porn industry and the Free Speech Coalition do not have one shred of credibility left with the news now of performer Rod Daily’s acute (i.e. recent) HIV infection … we remain gravely concerned the porn industry continues to endanger its workers by ignoring prudent health and worker safety laws by shooting adult films with out condoms.”

A spokesperson for Free Speech Coalition, the trade organization that is charged with self-regulating the industry, has said that the new pause in filming will be lifted when everyone involved has been tested and cleared.

Yet Another Reason to Use a Condom: Good Bacteria

Researchers in China have discovered a potential new reason to use condoms: healthy bacteria. The Chinese scientists recruited 164 married women who were healthy and not on hormonal methods of contraception—some used condoms, others had intrauterine devices (IUDs), and some relied on natural family planning. They then swabbed each woman’s vagina on day 21 of her menstrual cycle and examined the bacteria that were present.

The researchers found that condom users were more likely to have lactobacillus, a kind of bacteria that produces lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide and is thought to keep the pH levels of the vagina balanced. As LiveScience explains, intercourse—especially with ejaculation—can upset the balance in a woman’s vagina and “this ‘acidic buffer system,’ as the researchers called it, is thought to block harmful bacteria from taking up residence and causing infections.” Specifically, it can prevent bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common infection that causes itching and discharge. It may also help prevent HIV transmission.

The researchers, therefore, conclude that consistent condom use can help prevent both BV and HIV by keeping vaginal bacteria in balance. Of course, we also know that consistent condom use can help prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases by blocking the exchange of semen and vaginal fluids and that it’s an easy and inexpensive way to prevent pregnancy as well.

Roundups Sexual Health

This Week in Sex: The Sexually Transmitted Infections Edition

Martha Kempner

A new Zika case suggests the virus can be transmitted from an infected woman to a male partner. And, in other news, HPV-related cancers are on the rise, and an experimental chlamydia vaccine shows signs of promise.

This Week in Sex is a weekly summary of news and research related to sexual behavior, sexuality education, contraception, STIs, and more.

Zika May Have Been Sexually Transmitted From a Woman to Her Male Partner

A new case suggests that males may be infected with the Zika virus through unprotected sex with female partners. Researchers have known for a while that men can infect their partners through penetrative sexual intercourse, but this is the first suspected case of sexual transmission from a woman.

The case involves a New York City woman who is in her early 20s and traveled to a country with high rates of the mosquito-borne virus (her name and the specific country where she traveled have not been released). The woman, who experienced stomach cramps and a headache while waiting for her flight back to New York, reported one act of sexual intercourse without a condom the day she returned from her trip. The following day, her symptoms became worse and included fever, fatigue, a rash, and tingling in her hands and feet. Two days later, she visited her primary-care provider and tests confirmed she had the Zika virus.

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A few days after that (seven days after intercourse), her male partner, also in his 20s, began feeling similar symptoms. He had a rash, a fever, and also conjunctivitis (pink eye). He, too, was diagnosed with Zika. After meeting with him, public health officials in the New York City confirmed that he had not traveled out of the country nor had he been recently bit by a mosquito. This leaves sexual transmission from his partner as the most likely cause of his infection, though further tests are being done.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s recommendations for preventing Zika have been based on the assumption that virus was spread from a male to a receptive partner. Therefore the recommendations had been that pregnant women whose male partners had traveled or lived in a place where Zika virus is spreading use condoms or abstain from sex during the pregnancy. For those couples for whom pregnancy is not an issue, the CDC recommended that men who had traveled to countries with Zika outbreaks and had symptoms of the virus, use condoms or abstain from sex for six months after their trip. It also suggested that men who traveled but don’t have symptoms use condoms for at least eight weeks.

Based on this case—the first to suggest female-to-male transmission—the CDC may extend these recommendations to couples in which a female traveled to a country with an outbreak.

More Signs of Gonorrhea’s Growing Antibiotic Resistance

Last week, the CDC released new data on gonorrhea and warned once again that the bacteria that causes this common sexually transmitted infection (STI) is becoming resistant to the antibiotics used to treat it.

There are about 350,000 cases of gonorrhea reported each year, but it is estimated that 800,000 cases really occur with many going undiagnosed and untreated. Once easily treatable with antibiotics, the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae has steadily gained resistance to whole classes of antibiotics over the decades. By the 1980s, penicillin no longer worked to treat it, and in 2007 the CDC stopped recommending the use of fluoroquinolones. Now, cephalosporins are the only class of drugs that work. The recommended treatment involves a combination of ceftriaxone (an injectable cephalosporin) and azithromycin (an oral antibiotic).

Unfortunately, the data released last week—which comes from analysis of more than 5,000 samples of gonorrhea (called isolates) collected from STI clinics across the country—shows that the bacteria is developing resistance to these drugs as well. In fact, the percentage of gonorrhea isolates with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin increased more than 300 percent between 2013 and 2014 (from 0.6 percent to 2.5 percent).

Though no cases of treatment failure has been reported in the United States, this is a troubling sign of what may be coming. Dr. Gail Bolan, director of CDC’s Division of STD Prevention, said in a press release: “It is unclear how long the combination therapy of azithromycin and ceftriaxone will be effective if the increases in resistance persists. We need to push forward on multiple fronts to ensure we can continue offering successful treatment to those who need it.”

HPV-Related Cancers Up Despite Vaccine 

The CDC also released new data this month showing an increase in HPV-associated cancers between 2008 and 2012 compared with the previous five-year period. HPV or human papillomavirus is an extremely common sexually transmitted infection. In fact, HPV is so common that the CDC believes most sexually active adults will get it at some point in their lives. Many cases of HPV clear spontaneously with no medical intervention, but certain types of the virus cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, penis, anus, mouth, and neck.

The CDC’s new data suggests that an average of 38,793 HPV-associated cancers were diagnosed each year between 2008 and 2012. This is a 17 percent increase from about 33,000 each year between 2004 and 2008. This is a particularly unfortunate trend given that the newest available vaccine—Gardasil 9—can prevent the types of HPV most often linked to cancer. In fact, researchers estimated that the majority of cancers found in the recent data (about 28,000 each year) were caused by types of the virus that could be prevented by the vaccine.

Unfortunately, as Rewire has reported, the vaccine is often mired in controversy and far fewer young people have received it than get most other recommended vaccines. In 2014, only 40 percent of girls and 22 percent of boys ages 13 to 17 had received all three recommended doses of the vaccine. In comparison, nearly 80 percent of young people in this age group had received the vaccine that protects against meningitis.

In response to the newest data, Dr. Electra Paskett, co-director of the Cancer Control Research Program at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, told HealthDay:

In order to increase HPV vaccination rates, we must change the perception of the HPV vaccine from something that prevents a sexually transmitted disease to a vaccine that prevents cancer. Every parent should ask the question: If there was a vaccine I could give my child that would prevent them from developing six different cancers, would I give it to them? The answer would be a resounding yes—and we would have a dramatic decrease in HPV-related cancers across the globe.

Making Inroads Toward a Chlamydia Vaccine

An article published in the journal Vaccine shows that researchers have made progress with a new vaccine to prevent chlamydia. According to lead researcher David Bulir of the M. G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research at Canada’s McMaster University, efforts to create a vaccine have been underway for decades, but this is the first formulation to show success.

In 2014, there were 1.4 million reported cases of chlamydia in the United States. While this bacterial infection can be easily treated with antibiotics, it often goes undiagnosed because many people show no symptoms. Untreated chlamydia can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which can leave scar tissue in the fallopian tubes or uterus and ultimately result in infertility.

The experimental vaccine was created by Canadian researchers who used pieces of the bacteria that causes chlamydia to form an antigen they called BD584. The hope was that the antigen could prompt the body’s immune system to fight the chlamydia bacteria if exposed to it.

Researchers gave BD584 to mice using a nasal spray, and then exposed them to chlamydia. The results were very promising. The mice who received the spray cleared the infection faster than the mice who did not. Moreover, the mice given the nasal spray were less likely to show symptoms of infection, such as bacterial shedding from the vagina or fluid blockages of the fallopian tubes.

There are many steps to go before this vaccine could become available. The researchers need to test it on other strains of the bacteria and in other animals before testing it in humans. And, of course, experience with the HPV vaccine shows that there’s work to be done to make sure people get vaccines that prevent STIs even after they’re invented. Nonetheless, a vaccine to prevent chlamydia would be a great victory in our ongoing fight against STIs and their health consequences, and we here at This Week in Sex are happy to end on a bit of a positive note.

Roundups Sexual Health

This Week in Sex: Women Want More Sex Than Men Think, and Who Needs a $15K Vibrator?

Martha Kempner

This week, there's not enough of an important syphilis drug to go around, a new study shows that men don't know how much sex their female partners want, a beer company unveils a new same-sex marriage ad, and a sex toy recommended by Gwyneth Paltrow's website is gold (literally).

This Week in Sex is a weekly summary of news and research related to sexual behavior, sexuality education, contraception, STIs, and more.

Temporary Penicillin Shortage Could Be Dangerous for Pregnant Women with Syphilis

The development of antibiotics in the 1940s ushered in a new era in which bacterial infections—including syphilis, one of the oldest sexually transmitted infections (STIs)—could be treated or cured. With that came the ability to prevent congenital syphilis, which occurs when a pregnant woman passes the bacteria to her infant. Congenital syphilis can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, severe illness in the infant, and even early infant death. And, as Rewire recently reported, it is on the rise; between 2012 and 2014, there was a 38 percent increase in the rate of congenital syphilis.

The good news is that if a pregnant woman is treated with an antibiotic at least 30 days before giving birth, there is a 98 percent cure rate, meaning her infant would not be born infected. The bad news is that, until next month, there is a shortage of the one antibiotic approved for treating syphilis in pregnant women.

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Bicillin L-A, an injectable form of penicillin that is also used to treat other infections such as strep throat, is manufactured by Pfizer. The company said in April that it was experiencing “an unanticipated delay in manufacturing,” and that it would be shipping just 30 percent of the usual supply until July.

Typically, pregnant women are tested for syphilis during their first prenatal visit. If infected, they are treated with three injections of Bicillin L-A. In an attempt to keep these routine “test and treat” efforts going despite the shortage, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has asked that health-care providers refrain from prescribing Bicillin L-A for any infection other than syphilis if other treatments are available.

Supply issues are unfortunately common in the pharmaceutical industry. NPR explains that generic, injectable drugs—like Bicillin L-A—are particularly susceptible to shortages because they are difficult to make but cheap to purchase, meaning few drug companies manufacture them. If those companies experience a difficulty in manufacturing that forces them to shut down temporarily, such as rust in the equipment or mold in the factory, there is no other supplier to pick up the slack.

Luckily, Pfizer expects to be back to full capacity on Bicillin L-A by July, which will help make sure there are no disruptions to efforts to prevent congenital syphilis. This is particularly important given the number of cases that have been seen in recent years and the seriousness of the outcomes. In 2014, there were 438 nationwide cases of congenital syphilis, which led to 25 stillbirths and eight deaths within 30 days of birth.

Women Want More Sex than Their Male Partners Think

There is an enduring myth that men always want sex and women, well, not so much. It turns out that women in long-term relationships with men want more sex than their partners realize. To determine if perception and reality differed, researchers conducted three studies with couples—44 couples in the first study, 84 in the second, and 101 in the third. All but ten were opposite-sex couples.

Though questions varied according to the study, each participant was asked to keep a diary that recorded some combination of the following factors: their own sexual desire; relationship satisfaction; commitment to their partner; and their perception of their partner’s sexual desire, relationship satisfaction, and commitment. Couples were also asked to keep a log of their sexual activity. Couples in the third study were asked to record how motivated they were to avoid sexual rejection on any given day.

While men in the study did report higher levels of sexual desire than their female partners, what was more striking was that across all three studies men consistently underestimated their partner’s desire. The researchers are not sure why men’s perceptions were so frequently off but they have at least two theories.

First, as Amy Muise, the lead author on the study, told Fusion via email it might be about avoiding complacency: “We don’t know exactly what men do when they underperceive, but it’s possible that this keeps them from becoming lazy about maintaining their partner’s interest.”

Alternatively, men may perceive less desire from their partners as a way to avoid sexual rejection. This is supported by the additional finding that men were particularly likely to underestimate their partner’s desire on days when they felt ill-equipped to handle rejection.

Of course, it could just be that men have been trained by every television show, movie, and magazine to believe that women just don’t want sex as much as they do.

No matter where the misperception comes from, the results of this study once again point out how important it is for couples to communicate openly and honestly about what they want and how often they want it.

Bud Light Ad Celebrates Same-Sex Marriage

While Budweiser ads of the past seem to have mostly celebrated bikini-clad women and Clydesdale horses, a new ad released in honor of LGBT Pride Month takes a big turn for the beer company. The ad depicts scenes of a wedding and features actor Seth Rogan and comedienne Amy Schumer leading a beer-bottle toast to the groom and the groom.

The company said in a press release: “June is the height of wedding season, and it is also LGBT Pride [M]onth in America. That’s why right now is the time to spark a national conversation by celebrating every kind of wedding—and everyone’s right to marry whoever they choose.”

The ad was released in partnership with Ellen DeGeneres and first appeared on her social media channels. The company will continue to air the ad on social media and plans a primetime television airing as well.

Gwyneth Paltrow’s Goop Suggests a Gold-Plated Vibrator

You may remember when Goop, the lifestyle site launched by Oscar-winning actress Gwyneth Paltrow, suggested steam-cleaning vaginas with the herb multwort, a practice that was roundly criticized by experts as unnecessary (the vagina cleans itself) and potentially dangerous (steam is hot). Goop made news again recently with a sexual-health suggestion that may be good for vaginas, but not so great for bank accounts.

Suggested on the website’s list of favorite sex toys was the LELO INEZ, a 24-karat gold vibrator that costs $15,000. Other pricey toys included a whip for $535 and a vibrating necklace for $395.

We here at This Week in Sex are all for sex toys. But we want to assure you that there a lot of good sex toys out there that won’t break the bank. You should be able to find some reliable toys for between $35 and $65 and even less, if you want to visit a local pharmacy and find vibrating rings (which, as an added bonus, are often packaged with a condom).