News Violence

Florida Arsonist Gets Ten Years for Pensacola Clinic Firebombing

Robin Marty

Rogers burned down the American Family Planning Clinic on New Year's Day. Now he will serve ten years in prison.

The fire at the American Family Planning Clinic in Pensacola, Florida, on New Year’s Day, 2012, now seems like a morbidly symbolic start to what became six months of violence against family-planning and reproductive-health-service clinics and practitioners. Starting with the early-morning firebombing in Florida, and culminating in June in a series of arsons in the area around Atlanta, Georgia, the first half of 2012 saw the most acts of aggression against those who support abortion rights since the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) took effect in 1994.

According to the Associated Press, a homeless man, Bobby Joe Rogers, who lived in a parking lot near the clinic and often participated in anti-choice protests with movement activists, has been sentenced to ten years in federal prison for the firebombing. As a result of the bombing, the clinic has been permanently shut down. Rogers originally pled not guilty, but changed his plea in July.

A Wisconsin man, Francis Grady, who allegedly bombed a Planned Parenthood center in April, is scheduled to be sentenced this fall. Grady, who said in court that he “lit the clinic up” because “they kill babies in there,” has since been avidly embraced by Rev. Donald Spitz of the anti-choice terrorist group, Army of God. Spitz has sent e-mails defending Grady’s actions, created videos calling him the movement’s “brother,” and put him on the group’s “prisoners of life” list. Others on the list include Scott Roeder, who murdered Dr. George Tiller, and murderer Eric Rudolph, who bombed a Birmingham, Alabama, health center. 

Rogers, too, is on Spitz’s list of special friends whom he solicits for funds. At the top of his grim “honor roll” is Paul Jennings Hill, who received the death penalty in 2004 for the murder of Dr. John Britton on the sidewalk of the same Pensacola clinic that Rogers burned down on New Year’s Day.

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Analysis Law and Policy

Patel Oral Arguments Suggest a Dangerous Precedent for Prosecuting Pregnant People

Jessica Mason Pieklo

Attorneys for the State of Indiana argued it is entirely reasonable for the state to bring felony charges against women who try and terminate their own pregnancies.

Read our other articles on the Purvi Patel case here.

Almost three years ago, the State of Indiana first charged Purvi Patel with both feticide and neglect of a dependent following Patel’s home delivery of what state doctors testified was a 25-week-old fetus. Today, there is still no clear picture of the events leading up to those charges. Based on the conflicting evidence presented at Patel’s seven-day trial, it’s not clear what Patel knew about her pregnancy, including how far along she was. It’s not clear what exactly happened that day in Patel’s bathroom. And, most importantly, there is no clear picture of whether the delivery resulted in a live birth.

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But on Monday, lawyers from the state Attorney General’s Office argued to the Indiana Court of Appeals that none of those unknowns matter. Patel’s charges of feticide for unlawfully terminating her pregnancy and neglecting a live dependent were not contradictory. Quite simply, argued Indiana Deputy Attorney General Ellen Meilaender, if there’s evidence that a person’s conduct contributed to the death of a fetus or a severely prematurely infant born alive that then dies, that person faces possible felony prosecution both for feticide and criminal neglect of a dependent—setting a disturbing potential precedent for pregnant people throughout the state.

The Indiana feticide statute makes it a felony for a person to “knowingly or intentionally terminate a human pregnancy with an intention other than to produce a live birth or to remove a dead fetus.” The statute is silent on whether a self-induced abortion falls under this category. Indiana prosecutors argue that it does and told the appeals court Monday that the jury verdict against Patel proved them right.

The state made a similar argument with Patel’s conviction for felony neglect of a dependent. According to the state, by taking abortion-inducing drugs, Patel created a situation that put her “dependent”—in other words, her fetus—in harm’s way. Once delivered alive, the state argued, Patel had a legal duty to immediately seek medical attention on its behalf, including clamping her umbilical cord immediately after delivery to prevent neonatal blood loss and calling 9-1-1 for emergency care. It made no difference, prosecutors said, that the medical evidence was contradictory as to whether there was a live birth at all, or what, if anything, Patel understood was happening at the time of the delivery.

Patel’s attorneys may disagree with the inferences made by the jury, state attorneys argued, but that doesn’t mean the law grants the court grounds to overturn the jury verdict.

It wasn’t clear to me at the end of oral arguments that the three-judge panel was buying the State’s argument. The judges pushed Meilaender hard on where the law should draw the line between taking nonprescribed abortion medications that produce a live birth where the baby then dies—as the state argued happened here—to drinking whiskey, smoking cigarettes, or taking any other host of actions that may help contribute to a miscarriage. The judges seemed to agree that it would be excessive to prosecute pregnant people for smoking, for example. The judges also appeared skeptical about the argument that the feticide statute doesn’t require the fetus to die in utero, and that even a live birth can and should be prosecuted under this statute if the accused person’s original intent was to terminate a pregnancy outside Indiana’s stringent legal abortion requirements.

But it also wasn’t clear they bought the argument of Patel’s attorney, Lawrence Marshall, that the state hadn’t met its burden of proof when it convicted her. Marshall stammered to keep the judges on point, refusing to answer whether federal constitutional precedent, from Roe v. Wade to Planned Parenthood v. Casey, would protect many other people from unchecked pregnancy policing under feticide laws. (Spoiler: The simple answer is no—as Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas, to name a few, show).

The heart of the state’s negligence case against Patel rests on her alleged failure to seek care for a live birth. Yet Marshall could not specifically and directly answer the judges’ concerns that Patel, after allegedly cutting the umbilical cord during delivery, should have also immediately clamped or kinked it to prevent any blood loss to the fetus she just delivered. He did not note that it is unreasonable to expect any woman immediately following an extremely premature delivery to have the presence of mind to do such things, lest she face felony prosecution. He tried to point out that there was medical testimony at trial that at 25 weeks, severely prematurely born infants have only modest survival rates even when born at hospitals and immediately transferred to neonatal intensive care units, and tried to argue the state couldn’t prove that Patel had any idea a live birth had even happened. But all those counters appeared to fall flat on a panel of judges clearly willing to consider, and perhaps even accept, that Patel’s failure to kink her umbilical cord and call 9-1-1 immediately post-delivery was sufficient to convict her for felony neglect of a dependent.

Throughout the trial and the appeal, the state compensated for its lack of direct evidence about the situation by trying to redirect the jury’s focus to Patel’s “character,” which, prosecutors argued, helped inform the decision to convict her. Patel was in a relationship with a married man. Evidence at trial showed she had been texting back and forth with a friend concerning the pregnancy and her desire to terminate it, in part because of fears her conservative Hindu family would not support her. That’s both sexually provocative and naive, argued the state in its appellate brief—provocative because she was acting outside religious and social norms, and naive because “family would have loved her regardless and would have welcomed the baby, as it is their religious belief to love a child even if born out of wedlock and their religion is opposed to killing anyone or anything.”

Meanwhile, the state argued, the evidence that should be weighed in Patel’s favor did not matter. That included evidence at trial that showed Patel believed she was only about 12 weeks pregnant—not about 25 weeks—when she took the unprescribed abortifacient. Not important, argued the state. All that matters is her fetus was old enough to fall outside Indiana’s limit on 20-week abortions. Evidence at trial showed that Patel tried, ultimately unsuccessfully, to navigate Indiana’s web of anti-choice restrictions before ordering abortion-inducing medications online; but that just demonstrates Patel had the right criminal intent to support the jury’s conviction, said Meilaender, not that those regulations are difficult for non-lawyers to navigate on their own.

In other words, argued Meilaender, the details that should normally be necessary to support a criminal conviction—details such as what Patel knew, and when—just don’t matter in this case.

Those details do matter. That’s why the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected nearly identical arguments in the prosecution of Jenni Linn McCormack, an Idaho woman who also terminated a pregnancy and was criminally prosecuted for it. Expecting patients to understand the intricacies of abortion restrictions or face criminal prosecution at its very core unduly burdens abortion rights, that court ruled.

It will likely be months before the Indiana Court of Appeals issues its opinion. And I’m not going to make any guesses about how this case turns out. But I will say that, despite all the unknowns in the Patel case, there are plenty of knowns that ultimately affect Patel and pregnant people in Indiana as a whole.

We know that Indiana law does not mandate sex education be taught in its schools. The Indiana Department of Education recommends its inclusion as part of a school’s comprehensive health education program. But that’s it. And for those schools that decide to offer some form of sex ed, there’s no requirement that the information provided be unbiased and medically accurate, let alone do anything other than stress abstinence-only sex ed. And of course, parents in Indiana have the option of opting out of sex ed entirely for their children should they so choose.

We also know that legal abortion in Indiana is extensively and severely restricted. First, any person seeking an abortion must receive state-mandated counseling that includes information designed to discourage the patient from having an abortion. That counseling must be done in person. Indiana law then requires a patient to wait an additional 18 hours after that counseling session before an abortion can be performed. That means, effectively, patients must make two separate trips to an abortion clinic to have the procedure. A patient must also undergo an ultrasound before obtaining an abortion and during that ultrasound the provider must offer her the option to view the ultrasound image.

Indiana law also prohibits the use of telemedicine for medication abortion. Also, Indiana bans abortions after 20 weeks, with only a very narrow exception of when the patient’s life or physical health is at risk.

And if that patient can navigate the consent and waiting period requirements, how will they pay for the procedure? In Indiana, abortion is covered in private insurance policies only in cases of life endangerment, rape, incest, or the severely compromised health of the pregnant person. Individuals have the option of buying a separate abortion policy, but that, of course, is at additional cost.

What do Indiana’s sex ed requirements and abortion restrictions have to do with Patel’s conviction and appeal? Everything. Just like the fact that Patel, like Bei Bei Shuai before her, is not white and is not wealthy. A lack of comprehensive sex education means it’s increasingly likely other patients will, like Patel, have very little apparent understanding of the pregnancy process, particularly early on in pregnancy when indicators such as a missed period can be mixed. An increasingly draconian set of abortion restrictions means more and more patients like Patel will find themselves unable to access a legal provider or afford an abortion at all, which means that more and more patients like Patel will be forced into either attempting to self-terminate an unwanted pregnancy or carrying it to term.

Attorneys for the State of Indiana tried to tone down the “canary in a coal mine” aspect to Patel’s conviction. But there really is no denying it. During Monday’s arguments, they were pressing for the right to bring felony charges against women who terminate their own pregnancies. They insisted those prosecutions are exactly what the Indiana legislature intended when passing its feticide statute and further, such prosecutions advanced the state’s “significant” interest in protecting “unborn human life.”

Combine those arguments with the unavailability of comprehensive sex ed and the anti-choice restrictions in Indiana, and it’s clear that Patel’s case is absolutely a test case in the limits, if any, of state power to regulate pregnancies and their outcomes. Should Patel’s conviction be upheld, then the courts will have sent a very strong message to the the people of Indiana: The state expects and demands a healthy, live birth with each pregnancy, and failure to produce one could result in felony charges.

News Violence

Missouri Man Pleads Guilty to Arson Attempts at Planned Parenthood Facility

Michelle D. Anderson

Surveillance cameras showed Jedediah Stout throwing items containing an accelerant onto the roof of the abortion care facility and igniting material attached to the accelerant.

The man behind a pair of 2013 arson attempts at a Planned Parenthood health center in Joplin, Missouri, has pleaded guilty, the U.S. Department of Justice announced Monday.

Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General Vanita Gupta and Tammy Dickinson, the U.S. attorney of the Western District of Missouri, said Joplin resident Jedediah Stout, 32, also pleaded guilty to committing arson at the Islamic Society of Joplin mosque in 2012.

The plea led to one count related to damage to the mosque, two counts of arson at the Planned Parenthood clinic, and one count of violating the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act.

Stout told federal, state, and local investigators that he attacked the mosque because he didn’t “like Islam as a religion,” according to the Justice Department release. The fire destroyed the religious building and many of the donations made there during the Muslim holy period of Ramadan.

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Stout during the recent court hearing admitted that he used the same kind of incendiary device in the mosque arson that he used during the arson attempts at Planned Parenthood in October 2013.

He admitted that he targeted the clinic because it provided reproductive health services, federal officials said. The facility in Joplin, which does not provide abortion care, is one of two associated with Planned Parenthood of the St. Louis Region and Southwest Missouri.

The Justice Department said both instances of attempted arson at the Planned Parenthood were captured on surveillance cameras and featured Stout throwing items containing an accelerant onto the roof of the facility and igniting material attached to the accelerant. Authorities apprehended him shortly thereafter.

Gupta, who leads the Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division, said in a statement Monday that the Justice Department would “continue to vigorously prosecute violence against reproductive health services providers and crimes motivated by religious animus.”

Statistics released by the National Abortion Federation noted a surge in violent acts against abortion providers nationwide over the past year.

Since 1977, the NAF report said, there have been 11 murders, 26 attempted murders, 42 bombings, 185 arsons, and other incidents of criminal behavior directed at abortion providers.

Stout remains in federal custody without bond. He is subject to a maximum sentence of 61 years in federal prison without parole under federal statutes.

The Justice Department said a sentencing hearing will be scheduled after the U.S. Probation Office completes a pre-sentence investigation. The department’s Civil Rights Division is prosecuting the case in collaboration with Assistant U.S. Attorney Jim Kelleher of the Western District of Missouri.