Analysis Sexual Health

Bodies in Motion: Physical Females Face Different Risks

Eleanor J. Bader

While just about everyone agrees that female participation in athletic endeavors is great news, the down side is that sports injuries are on the rise since women—like men—often get hurt when they exert themselves.

Cross-posted with permission from On The Issues Magazine.

Prior to the 1960s, women and girls heard a steady banter when it came to sports: Don’t participate. Of course, not everyone listened, and those who insisted on taking part were warned to tread lightly lest the running, throwing, jumping, and lifting irreparably harm their bodies and interfere with their ability to bear children.

Now, women actively pursue a huge variety of vigorous physical activities—from competitive sports to demanding dance, fitness, and recreational regimens. Studies for the 2009 to 2010 year reveal that 3,172,637 girls participated in high school athletics; another 184,426 took part in championship college sports (compared to 4,455,740 and 245,875 males, respectively). And then there are nonstudents, the millions of women and girls who run, bike, or go to the gym for Pilates, yoga, and other classes.

While just about everyone agrees that female participation in athletic endeavors is great news, the down side is that sports injuries are on the rise since women—like men—often get hurt when they exert themselves. In addition, their differing anatomical construction means that attention to certain vulnerabilities needs to be addressed in sports training, fitness activities, and coaching—and by medical specialists.

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The most common injuries faced by girls and women may not seem obvious at first glance. For example, tears to the knee’s anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, are five times more common in girls and women than they are in men and boys. Other common injuries include stress fractures, concussions, shoulder injuries, and damage to joints and cartilage.

Bodily Vulnerabilities

Certified Athletic Trainer Stacy Struble, Head Athletic Trainer of Club Sports and Campus Recreation at the University of San Diego, has served as a trainer with the USA Softball National Women’s Team and US Soccer Federation. She describes a key difference between men’s and women’s bodies that contributes to ACL tears:

“Our pelvis is wider and deeper in order to accommodate for carrying and birthing children. The accommodation causes our hips to be wider set than our knees in what is called a ‘Q’ angle. While this in itself is not the sole cause of an increase in ACL injuries in women, it is cause for concern and must be recognized and dealt with” by sports professionals.

Dr. Catherine Robertson, Assistant Clinical Professor of Orthopedic Surgery at the University of California, San Diego, agrees. “We don’t want to pretend that there are no differences between male and female bodies or athleticism, or in terms of risks,” she says. “The question is how we address them. Yes, our wider pelvis is one factor leading to ACL tears, but it’s also true that women tend to have more flexibility and better balance than men. Most men do better in upper body strength.” Both she and Struble stress proper warm-up exercises as key to injury prevention. At the same time, everyone involved in sports understands that it is impossible to prevent all injuries and accidents.

In fact, most people are shocked to learn that airborne endeavors—leaping, jumping and flying over bars—cause the most serious injuries to women and girls who participate in high school and college athletics. In the nearly three decades from 1982 to 2010, the greatest percentage of catastrophic or disabling injuries to females occurred in gymnastics. According to research by the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury (NCCSI), the most dangerous sports for females are not football or ice hockey—the sports that are most perilous for males—but cheerleading. What’s more, the National Center found that high school cheerleading accounted for 65.1 percent of all serious female sports injuries—including concussions, dislocations, lacerations, and soft-tissue damage—between 1982 and 2007; in the most recent year for which statistics are available, 2009-2010, 78 school cheerleaders reported serious impairments as a result of their squad’s activities. Even more shocking, there were two cheerleading fatalities that year.

Dr. Frederick Mueller, director of NCCSI, cites 26,786 emergency room visits by cheerleaders in 2007 alone. The reason, he says, is a shift in what cheerleaders do. “In the 1960s, cheerleaders were shaking pom-poms, and the only stunt they performed was a short jump off the ground,” he wrote in the Journal of Athletic Training. Not so today. Mueller states that contemporary cheerleaders are high-level acrobats who generally perform on wooden or concrete floors. “It is a competitive contact sport that involves all kinds of gymnastic stunts, pyramids, and partnering as well as throwing flyers high in the air and catching them,” he concludes.

Faced with these daunting injuries, sports and health practitioners agree that the best way to prevent injuries lies in training, instilling a rigorous regard for warm-up exercises, healthy habits, and appropriate self-care in all participants. Both coaches and players need to follow these rules, they say. “Some coaches think about the technical aspects of their sport, the hitting and scoring, but don’t necessarily pay attention to injury prevention. Youth coaches have the potential to have the highest impact on young athletes. They teach kids good habits and techniques. If they teach prevention—beginning with warm-up exercises—the child will be more likely to have longevity in the sport,” trainer Stacy Struble says.

Warming Up and Cooling Down

Dr. Catherine Robertson also stresses the importance of educating coaches. “When coaches see data that says that if you spend 15 minutes a day on warming up, you have a lower risk of athletic injuries, you’ve given them a compelling reason to build in warm-ups,” she says. “What’s harder is keeping up the enthusiasm since warm-ups don’t completely eliminate impairments.”

In addition, she continues, female athletes need to take basic self-care seriously. “Women and girls often feel as if they need to present a front of invulnerability. We have a kind of warrior woman mentality, but we need to learn that it’s okay to admit when something is wrong and strike a balance between being strong and letting injuries heal,” she adds.

Peter Cirolia, a kinesiologist and personal trainer in Westchester County, New York, specializes in treating sports injuries among women and girls. “Most girls are not taught to stretch before competing. They’re told, ‘Lets go,’ and they start running around the track when they’re not warm, or just go and start the game. I talk to the parents of each kid and emphasize that if they don’t stretch they’ll eventually have problems. A 10 to 15 minute stretch can release muscles that are spasmed or contracting; it further releases the pull on hamstrings, spine, knees, and hips.

“Women often don’t build up the correct muscles around their joints,” he continues. “If I see them because they’re feeling pre-ACL-tear pain or discomfort in their knees, the right exercises can usually prevent the tear from happening by building up the strength of the surrounding muscles. If I see her post-tear and she has to have surgery, I can design exercises to help with the pain.”

Cirolia underscores the interplay of proper warm-ups and nutrition with all of his clients—regardless of whether they’re seasoned athletes or neophytes. He further warns against the use of protein shakes or meal bars in lieu of food. “Protein powder has fewer benefits than protein from actual food. When I say this people’s faces drop. I try to nip fallacies in the bud with young girls, teaching them to eat the fruit, vegetables, protein, and carbohydrates their bodies need,” he says. He also cautions young athletes about the relationship between nutrition and menstruation, since excessive exercise and poor eating habits can cause the body to stop producing estrogen, the hormone needed for ovulation. Low estrogen levels have been linked to bone loss, which increases the risk of fractures and causes other serious health problems as women age.

The same conditions apply to the dance world, where athletic ability is translated into art, and bodily wear-and-tear can be rigorous. Dr. Chloe Bland, a developmental psychologist, danced with a regional ballet company in upstate New York from 1989 to 1993. “Ballerinas get caught up in proving how tough they are and how much pain they can take,” she begins. “I remember when I first started to do point, and we’d take off our shoes after class to compare how much our feet had bled.” Although Bland now considers this behavior absurd, at the time the desire to continue dancing made ignoring the pain a given.

Coupled with rigid weight requirements and the understanding that they’re in a time- limited career, Bland reports that professional dancers typically feel extremely pressured when they get hurt or become ill. While members of her troupe were technically allowed to take time off for serious injuries, they were simultaneously encouraged to return as soon as possible. “At one point I had tendonitis and a pulled groin muscle but I never stayed out,” she admits.

Still, Bland notes that athletic activities, including dance, offer valuable benefits to girls and women, especially by boosting serotonin levels. “Higher serotonin increases the experience of joy and pleasure and can help you overcome sadness or depression. Just moving a muscle can change your thoughts,” she notes.

In the end, it’s a question of balance, figuring out the best ways to integrate movement into everyday life so that it is not a chore, but a source of enjoyment. Indeed, with appropriate care, women can stay in the game well into old age. “Things like loss of flexibility and strength, joint stiffening, and weakening were always assumed to be inevitable, but they’re not,” adds Dr. Catherine Robertson. “Exercise can ameliorate the changes that have traditionally been viewed as part of female aging. There’s no reason women can’t be active in their 60s, 70s, 80s and beyond.”

Investigations Violence

Victims of Rape and Sexual Assault, Failed by Criminal Justice System, Increasingly Seek Civil Remedies

Sofia Resnick

Unlike criminal trials, which require the prosecution to prove the defendant’s guilt “beyond a reasonable doubt,” civil trials have a much lower bar, requiring only that a plaintiff persuade a judge or jury that it is more likely than not that the events occurred.

This article contains graphic descriptions of sexual assault.

Alfredo Simón, a former pitcher for the Detroit Tigers who is now a free agent, is big for a baseball player.

The 34-year-old stands 6 feet 6 inches tall and weighs 265 pounds, according to his official stats. Simón’s stature may be imposing on the field, but it seems even more so when reading through a civil complaint lodged in 2014 that accuses him of rape.

According to his accuser, the assault occurred when Simón was in Washington, D.C., playing with his old team, the Cincinnati Reds, in a game against the Washington Nationals. The 29-year-old woman, who in court documents is named Jane Doe, says she met Simón at a club, where she consumed several drinks and became intoxicated. Doe left with Simón in the early morning hours of April 28, 2013, and they started making out in his hotel room.

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But then things turned.

Simón, she says, held her down despite her resistance, and anally raped her. Each time she tried to flee, she says, he would push her back onto the bed. Doe says he eventually yanked her by her hair and ejaculated in her face.

A forensic nurse examiner recorded Doe’s injuries in the sexual assault exam she took at the hospital later that day. Four days later, Doe reported the assault to police. According to the court documents, the rape kit detailed vaginal and anal abrasions and anal tears—injuries that, forensic medical experts would later testify in the civil case, corroborated her story. These injuries were not, however, recorded in photographs. Doe declined the nurse’s offer to snap images of her injuries, perhaps not understanding their potential value in bolstering her version of events.

Instead, an image that did make it into Doe’s police file was a photocopy of her cell phone exchange with the friend she had gone out with that night. Doe told her friend she was leaving the club to go “fuck the baseball player.” In her initial interview with police, Doe explained that she had intended to have sex with Simón. But, as noted in her civil complaint, she withdrew her consent once Simón “started to get rough with her.”

Police did not interview Simón, according to court records.

Ultimately, the evidence gathered wasn’t enough for the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Columbia, which prosecutes crimes that occur in D.C. The prosecutors presented this case to a grand jury, but notes from Doe’s police file indicate it was the U.S. Attorney’s Office that made the decision not to file charges against Simón, citing “insufficient evidence” and “good defense.”

Historically, that would have been the end of the matter, at least from the defendant’s perspective.

But Doe did not accept the state’s view as the final say on her case. Instead, she filed a civil lawsuit against Simón, claiming $10 million in punitive damages for assault, battery, and intentional infliction of emotional distress, and $5 million to compensate her for medical expenses and lost wages. The case ultimately settled for a fraction of that amount—$150,000, Simón’s attorneys told USA Today—and Simón did not admit any wrongdoing.

William Miller, a spokesperson for the U.S. Attorney’s Office for D.C., would not comment on Doe’s case. “We are legally barred from providing information about confidential grand jury proceedings,” he said in an email.

Legal experts told Rewire that by suing her alleged attacker in civil court, Jane Doe joined the ranks of a growing movement in the field of sexual assault.

Though there is no comprehensive national database that tracks the number of civil cases brought against alleged perpetrators of sexual assault, anecdotal evidence suggests a trend in the United States for victims to seek civil redress.

Every year, thousands of cases involving allegations of sexual assault are abandoned in the United States due to a range of reasons. These include lackluster police investigations, lack of forensic evidence, a victim’s unwillingness to testify, and, according to a recent White House report, because “law enforcement officers and prosecutors are not fully trained on the nature of these crimes or how best to investigate and prosecute them.”

Indeed, rape is notoriously difficult to prosecute and harder to prove. Even after decades of criminal justice reform and dedicated efforts from survivors and advocates, prosecutors are generally reluctant to go after alleged persecutors aggressively, often fearing they won’t win a conviction. Trials can also be traumatic for victims, who frequently face juries biased by cultural assumptions about rape.

“We [in society] generally don’t second-guess people who say that they were burglarized or say that their car was stolen or who say that they were assaulted, but we absolutely second-guess people that claim that they were sexually assaulted,” former special victims prosecutor Roger Canaff told Rewire in a phone interview. “We either are skeptical of the truth of the allegation or we look to blame that person.”

Unlike criminal trials, which require the prosecution to prove the defendant’s guilt “beyond a reasonable doubt,” civil trials have a much lower bar, requiring only that a plaintiff persuade a judge or jury that it is more likely than not that the events occurred.

For many victims, it is easy to see the appeal of choosing a venue where they are at least held to a more attainable burden of proof than in a criminal court. Sometimes they file a civil suit in addition to pursuing criminal charges, or they only make a civil complaint.

Civil rights attorney Gloria Allred, whose Los Angeles-based firm has specialized in representing women who have been victims of various types of sexual abuse and harassment, says she is seeing increasing numbers of women consider civil remedies as a form of justice after they have been sexually attacked.

“More and more, I think victims are very seriously considering the civil option, because it’s empowering,” Allred told Rewire in a phone interview. “You’re moving from being a victim to a survivor to a fighter for change.”

This shift in mentality is especially apparent in the civil claims against Bill Cosby, who has become the face of one of the most high-profile cases of sexual assault allegations in the past decade. Allred’s firm—Allred, Maroko & Goldberg—represents about half of the nearly 60 women who have so far come forward with claims, reaching as far back as the ’60s, against the man formerly known as “America’s Dad.” Coverage of the claims against Cosby has intensified over the past two years, but the fact remains that the fallen Hollywood star has yet to serve time for any of the allegations against him. Cosby faced his first criminal charges in one of these cases only very recently. Prosecutors in Pennsylvania charged him with sexual assault in late December for allegedly drugging and sexually assaulting a woman in 2004.

For his accusers, Allred says civil court offers women another opportunity for justice. And she says the civil route is empowering because, unlike criminal prosecutions where the state is in charge, civil cases enable victims to decide whether and how to proceed in their case.

“It’s the case of the victim, not the case of the people of that state,” Allred said. “As [people] see women standing up and not being afraid to fight back, it does have a ripple effect, and it does inspire other survivors to think, ‘Well, if she can do it, maybe I can do it, too.’”

Suing to Change the System

The trend of rape-related civil lawsuits has been building over time, as University of Arizona law professor Ellen Bublick documented in 2006. In recent years, increased recoveries from plaintiffs have stemmed from sexual abuse lawsuits against Catholic priests and on college campuses, with settlements for rape-related lawsuits often averaging half a million dollars.

Rewire’s review of dozens of federal civil lawsuits involving sexual assault filed since 2012—available in public court databases and the National Crime Victim Bar Association’s civil case database—indicate that outside of a handful of deep-pocketed athletes and celebrities, most sexual assault survivors are seeking damages from third parties. The trend appears to be especially apparent with complainants at schools and in institutions, particularly correctional facilities, where prisoners are vulnerable to sexual assaults at the hands of prison guards and fellow inmates, and often have little recourse outside of civil redress.

Perhaps the most prominent use of civil laws to win justice for sexual assault victims has been by college students, who have forced universities to take campus sexual assault more seriously via cases filed under a 1972 civil rights law known as Title IX. The law requires educational institutions to take proactive action to ensure that students are not subject to sexual discrimination, including rape or other forms of sexual assault, such as harassment and sexual touching—or groping—that falls short of penetration.

Over the past few decades, survivors and advocates have leveraged the law’s requirements in order to build awareness of the problem of assaults on college campuses and in public high schools. A glowing reception at the Sundance Film Festival of the documentary The Hunting Ground, about on-campus rape, has only propelled momentum for solutions to combat attacks at universities.

And student advocates are explicit about the advantages that Title IX can have over criminal prosecutions.

The group Know Your IX, started in 2013 by a group of sexual assault survivors and their supporters, explains on its website that “many victims of sexual violence don’t want to turn to the criminal justice system.”

The group states: “[Victims] may fear skepticism and abuse from police, prosecutors, or juries; they may not want to go through the ordeal of a long trial; they may fear retaliation from their assailant, who will most likely not end up prosecuted, let alone convicted; and they may be hesitant to send their assailants to prison. But even survivors who do report to the police are often abandoned by the system.”

By contrast, Title IX requires schools to investigate every report of sexual assault. And as with all other civil claims, the victim must prove that it is more likely than not that the alleged assault occurred, rather than that the crime occurred “beyond a reasonable doubt.”

Like Title IX activists seeking cultural change in the way institutions manage sexual assault cases, some victims have used a similar approach to spur action on the processing of rape kits.

Between 2012 and 2014, seven anonymous women from Harvey, Illinois, sued the Chicago suburb for the county’s failure to process and test rape kits that had been collected after they reported rapes between 1999 and 2008.

Like many jurisdictions in the United States, Harvey’s police had not begun testing the kits, even though they contained evidence collected from victims who had endured forensic exams that often last hours and can be invasive and distressing.

One of the victims, known as Jane Doe I, first reported being raped by her stepfather in 1997, when she was 11 years old. She submitted to a rape kit exam, which found semen in her vagina.

According to court records, Doe I’s mother reunited with the stepfather, Robert Buchanan, early into the police investigation, and asked her daughter to blame the assault on a schoolmate. Doe I recanted, as is common in sexual assault cases involving minors and family members, and police closed the investigation without attempting to match the DNA sample to Buchanan or to conduct further investigation, according to the complaint and subsequent court records.

In the civil case, Doe I testified that Buchanan went on to assault her for several years. She estimated that he raped her more than 100 times between 1998 and 2004, but her previous experience deterred her from reporting the crimes to police. Police tested her rape kit in 2007 and found a match to Buchanan’s DNA. City attorneys finally convicted Buchanan of sexually assaulting a minor in 2012 and sentenced him to six years in prison.

The City of Harvey awarded Jane Doe I $1.2 million and awarded the remaining six plaintiffs a combined $241,250, according to the Chicago Tribune. Together, these women, many of whom were minors at the time of their assaults, filed a total of three class action lawsuits that centered in part on the county’s failing to process or preserve more than 200 rape kits. Cook County prosecutors discovered these abandoned kits after raiding Harvey Police Department headquarters. Of these kits, only 50 were deemed viable for testing—including those of the anonymous plaintiffs in these cases—and led to charges against 14 individuals.

Monetary Justice

Toward the end of 2014, Mattie Bright desperately searched for a new high school for her daughter.

In November 2014, Bright’s then-15-year-old said three boys raped her in the middle of the school day in an abandoned classroom at Rosa Fort High School, in rural Tunica, Mississippi. Though police apprehended the alleged perpetrators, they returned to school two days later. One of the boys continued to ride the same bus as Bright’s daughter for months.

The criminal case is still pending, but last summer Bright sued the Tunica County School District in civil court, seeking damages to compensate her daughter’s psychological and emotional distress. Tunica is a rural town, and Bright cannot afford the hefty tuition of an all-girls private school, one of the closer options, said Stephanie Morris, the civil attorney representing Bright and her daughter.

The costs associated with this traumatic event continue to swell, Morris told Rewire.

“She has been severely depressed and having chest pains,” she said, of Bright’s daughter. “She needs counseling, extensive counseling. Quite naturally, this is something that affects women for years and years to come. Some people need counseling for the rest of their lives.”

While many states do offer some form of compensation to victims of violent crimes following a criminal conviction, they tend to only cover a limited range of expenses.

However, civil lawsuits allow victims to fight for compensation for the full range of their injuries—medical and psychological—and in that way, these suits can better reflect the true damage inflicted by rape and sexual assault.

According to the complaint Bright filed in August, she is suing the Tunica County School District and school officials for not taking proper action after the alleged rape occurred and for acting indifferently to the verbal and online sexual harassment her daughter allegedly experienced following the assault. The complaint claims that only when local media began reporting on the alleged attack four months later did the school take any independent action, firing two teachers and expelling the students implicated in the attack.

Katherine Kerby, the attorney representing the Tunica County School District and other school officials, declined to comment on the case.

Bright is also seeking punitive damages, as well as a requirement that the school district implement steps to prevent sex-based discrimination and harassment and to fully investigate these incidents as they occur. The amount of damages sought is unspecified.

“The school district was so indifferent to what had happened to this child,” Morris said. “So, punitive damages would be appropriate just to deter them from this type of response, or non-response, in the future.”

Entrenching Inequalities

While the civil route offers some advantages, legal experts warn that it cannot take the place of robust criminal prosecution. Not only does it fail to remove dangerous individuals from society, but it also only works against defendants or institutions with deep pockets, a reality that excludes the majority of sexual assault cases.

After all, civil lawsuits are only an option for those whose perpetrators happen to have enough money to make them worth suing, a glaring inequality that lawyers and experts say will limit the extent to which civil action can be used to combat sexual assault.

University of Oregon law professor Tom Lininger in his 2008 Duke Law Journal article “Is It Wrong to Sue for Rape?” argues that lower-income defendants are more likely to serve time than rich defendants, who are more likely to pay for their crimes in civil courts.

Allred says that inequality is simply an unfortunate reality of an imperfect system.

“As the old saying goes, ‘You can’t get blood out of a stone,’” she said. “You know, is it worth it to spend hundreds of hours in a civil lawsuit against a perpetrator who has no assets? Where is the justice in the end?”

For LW, a resident of Washington, D.C., the fact that her alleged attacker did not have substantial assets was just one of the factors that ruled out civil proceedings in her case.

In an interview with Rewire, LW, who asked to be identified by her initials, said she was drugged and raped by a man she met at a concert in October 2012. She said the man, a friend of a friend, offered her a vodka and Red Bull, which, she said, knocked her out almost immediately.

LW said she awoke the next morning to a bed covered in vomit and blood, faded memories, and the realization that she was no longer a virgin. LW was convinced she had a solid case, a prime piece of evidence being that her rape kit matched the offender’s semen.

LW’s victims’ rights attorney, Bridgette Stumpf, confirmed the facts LW laid out about her case with Rewire but said she could not reveal any privileged information about her client’s case. Stumpf is the co-founder and co-executive director of the Network for Victim Recovery of DC, a nonprofit that since 2012 has offered free legal, case-management, and advocacy services to all victims of crimes in the District.

LW said the U.S. Attorney’s Office told her in July 2014 that her case was not strong enough to go trial. Months later, after filing a Freedom of Information Act request for LW’s police file, Stumpf and LW learned that her alleged rapist had changed his story. Initially, he denied raping LW and claimed he had simply brought her home. But when told his semen was found in a rape kit, LW said, he shifted his story, claiming they had had consensual sex. The U.S. Attorney’s Office declined to comment on LW’s case.

LW seriously considered filing a civil lawsuit against the alleged attacker but ultimately decided against it.

“I decided it wasn’t for me,” LW said in a recent email. “It may seem that civil suits are ‘easier’ to win and are better at getting justice, but that comes with a price tag. The cases can be dragged out for a long time, the victim is put through intense questioning, sometimes even psych evals, and you have to re-live the whole experience. Plus, in a civil case, it is all about punitive damages. Most perpetrators don’t have money to pay to the victim, let alone anything else that you could sue for.”

And on top of that, even a successful civil suit would have failed to deliver the results LW said she most wanted. LW, like other rape survivors who spoke to Rewire, believes her alleged attacker has likely assaulted other women, or will again. LW is not alone in this thinking. Sexual assault researchers have found that many rapists, including so-called date or acquaintance rapists, are repeat offenders.

“For me, I realized that what I wanted most was for my perpetrator to face criminal charges,” she said. “I wanted him to get jail time and be registered as a sex offender, and have his DNA in CODIS [the FBI’s national criminal database]. The statute in DC for criminal charges in rape cases is 15 years. I have hope that one day, my perpetrator will face criminal charges for the rapes he has committed, but civil charges wouldn’t help me sleep at night.”

News Violence

Pennsylvania Bill Will Make Sexual Assault by Sports Official a Specific Crime

Tara Murtha

Coaches and sports officials initiate predatory sexual relationships with the teenagers in their care so often that the Pennsylvania General Assembly created a new crime in order to try to address it as specifically as possible.

Coaches and sports officials initiate predatory sexual relationships with the teenagers in their care so often that the Pennsylvania General Assembly created a new crime in order to try to address it as specifically as possible. HB 112, which establishes sexual assault by sports official as a third-degree felony, has passed both houses of the Pennsylvania General Assembly and is heading to the governor’s desk.

Rep. Mike Vereb (R-Montgomery), primary sponsor, explained the bill in a memo seeking support:

My legislation targets sports officials, such as coaches, athletic trainers, team attendants and managers by providing that it is unlawful for these individuals to engage in sexual intercourse, involuntary deviate sexual intercourse or indecent contact with a child under 18 years of age who is participating in the sports program.

The new statute applies to offenses ranging from “sexual intercourse” to “indecent contact” and applies whether the sports official volunteers or is a paid employee. Rep. Vereb says his intention is to help protect teenagers older than the state’s age of consent who are still susceptible to a trusted adult’s grooming tactics.

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“[Under current law] if you are a victim, and you are 16 or 17 years of age and your perpetrator, whether it’s a coach [or anyone else involved in the sports program who] assaults you, they cannot be charged with statutory rape,” he told Rewire.

The age of consent in Pennsylvania is 16. Current law also requires that the perpetrator be four years older than the victim for the action to be considered criminal statutory rape.

The bill is modeled on a state statute that criminalized similar situations in institutional settings such as schools. It is believed to be the first in the country to specifically focus on sports officials and young athletes.

There is no national data tracking sexual assault within sports programs. However, a California-based organization called Safe4Athletes is publishing initial results of a survey of competitive and elite athletes regarding sexual abuse. Founded by former British Olympic swimmer Katherine Starr, Safe4Athletes was established to advocate for better treatment of athletes, including raising awareness of sexual assault.

Of 155 female participants surveyed, 27 percent said they experienced sexual abuse. Eight percent (of 12 surveyed) male respondents reported the same. Starr will present her findings next week at the IWG World Conference on Women and Sport in Helsinki, Finland.

Starr says athletes are uniquely vulnerable to a coach’s predatory behavior. “You’re beholden to your coach,” she told Rewire. “Whether [your goal is] pleasing your parents or becoming an Olympian, as soon as you’ve committed to a sport, you become vulnerable and there is no ability to say yes or no. You are now beholden to this person guiding you down that path.”

Starr has spoken out about being sexually abused by her coach as a teenage athlete. “I don’t think I had the words to say, ‘He was raping me,’” Starr told a reporter in 2012. “Every time I resisted, he would retaliate, or he would punish me.”

Starr told Rewire that Vereb’s bill is “a great step.”

“Regardless of age of consent, we need to understand the power dynamic between a coach and an athlete,” she says.

The situation that inspired Rep. Vereb to develop the bill transpired not in a competitive sports environment, but everyday community athletics: A man Vereb knew in the community as a coach and physical trainer initiated a predatory relationship with a teenager.

The coach reportedly sent the teenager a text message indicating that he had “personal feelings” for her, then subsequently “initiated personal contact.”

In 2010, William “Billy” E. Gordon III pleaded guilty to “charges of aggravated indecent assault, statutory sexual assault, endangering the welfare of a child and corruption of a minor in connection with incidents that occurred with a 15-year-old girl between April and November of 2008.”

Gordon was 37 at the time of the assaults.

“It’s a very local case, a very unfortunate case,” Rep. Vereb told Rewire. Statutory rape statutes applied because sexual contact began when the victim was 15 years old. “[Gordon] would never have been … charged with rape if she was 16 [years old], and that was bone chilling to me,” Vereb, a former cop and detective, said. “[This bill is] a lightning bolt of a message: You put your hands on a child, regardless of which age they are now, you’re going to pay the price.”

The bill is now headed to the governor’s desk. Once signed, it will take effect in 60 days.